Slithering Goddesses: Reptilian Codes in The Faerie Queene
Written by Elizabeth Howell Brunner at Cal Poly, 1997, for English 512: Sixteenth Century Prose, taught by Professor Linda Halisky.  Posted online November 1999. 
Intro | Page Two | Page Three | Page Four | Page Five | Page Six | Page Seven | Page Eight | Works Cited
Baring, Anne and Jules Cashford.  The Myth of the Goddess: Evolution of an Image.  London: Penguin, 1991. 
Berger, Harry Jr.  "Spenser's Faerie Queene, Book I: Prelude to Interpretation."  Revisionary Play: Studies in the Spenserian Dynamics.  Berkeley: U of California P, 1988.  51-88.
Buttrick, George Arthur, ed.  "Serpent."  The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible.  Vol. 4.  Nashville: Abingdon, 1993.
Cheney, Donald.  "Plowman and Knight: The Hero's Dual Identity."  Spenser's Image of Nature: Wild Man, and Shepherd in The Faerie Queene.  New Haven: Yale UP, 1966.  Rpt. in Spenser: A Collection of Critical Essays.  Ed. Harry Berger, Jr. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1968.  63-87.
Cullen, Patrick.  "Red Crosse and the Pilgrimage of Christian Life."  Infernal Triad: The Flesh, the World, and the Devil in Spenser and Milton.  Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1974.  3-67.
Davies, Stevie.  "Introduction."  The Idea of Woman in Renaissance Literature.  Brighton, UK: Harvester P, 1986.  1-36.
Fourcade, Patricia.  "Mythology."  Snakes: A Natural History.  Ed. Roland Bauchot.  New York: Sterling, 1997.  184-93.
Frontain, Raymond-Jean. "'Add Faith unto Your Force and Be Not Faint': Teaching Book 1 in the Sophomore Survey."  Approaches to Teaching Spenser's Faerie Queene.  Eds. David Lee Miller and Alexander Dunlop.  New York: MLA, 1994.  49-57.
Gimbutas, Marija.  The Language of the Goddess.  San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1989.
Joines, Karen Randolph.  Serpent Symbolism in the Old Testament: A Linguistic, Archaeological, and Literary Study.  Haddonfield, NJ: Haddonfield House, 1974.
Kermode, Frank.  "The Faerie Queene, I and V."  Shakespeare, Spenser, Donne: Renaissance Essays.  London: Routledge, 1971.  33-59.
Leisegang, Hans.  "The Mystery of the Serpent"  (1939).  Pagan and Christian Mysteries: Papers from the Eranos Yearbooks.  Ed. Joseph Campbell.  Trans. Ralph Manheim. New York: Harper, 1955.  3-69.
Miller, David Lee.  "Introduction."  Approaches to Teaching Spenser's Faerie Queene.  Eds. David Lee Miller and Alexander Dunlop.  New York: MLA, 1994.  37-40.
Morris, Ramona and Desmond.  Men and Snakes.  London: Hutchinson, 1965.
Nissenson, Marilyn and Susan Jonas.  Snake Charm.  New York: Abrams, 1995.
Pratt, Annis.  Dancing with Goddesses: Archetypes, Poetry, and Empowerment.  Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1994.
Rhu, Lawrence F.  "Romancing the Word: Pre-Texts and Contexts for the Errour Episode."   Spenser Studies: A Renaissance Poetry Annual.  XI.  Eds. Patrick Cullen and Thomas P. Roche, Jr.  New York:  1994.  101-109. 
Spenser, Edmund.  The Faerie Queene.  1596.  In Edmund Spenser's Poetry.  Eds. Hugh Maclean and Annie Lake Prescott.  New York: Norton, 1993.  1-490.
Tillyard, E.M.W.  The Elizabethan World Picture.  London: Chatto & Windus, 1952.
Toombs, Lawrence E.  "The Psalms."  The Interpreter's One-Volume Commentary on the Bible.  Ed. Charles M. Laymon.  Nashville: Abingdon, 1971.  253-303.
Walker, Barbara G.  The Women's Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets.  San Francisco: Harper, 1983.  [Multiple entries]
Waters, D. Douglas.  Duessa as Theological Satire.  Columbia, MO: U of Missouri P, 1970.
White, T.H., trans. and ed.  "Book III: Reptiles and Fishes."  The Book of Beasts: Being a Translation from a Latin Bestiary of the Twelfth Century.  (Trans. 1954).  New York: Dover, 1984.  165-218.
Author: Elizabeth Brunner
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